Grazia Leonzio is a PhD student from L’Aquila University. She published several articles and participated to several international and national congresses about environmental and energy aspect of chemical processes. She wrote an article about waste management in Italian regions and published in Columbia University web-side. She participated to M.U.N conferences and she is a member of several associations: A.I.D.I.C. (Italian Association of Chemical Engineering), S.C.I. (Italian Chemical Society), I.S.S.N.A.F. (Italian Scientists and Scholars in North America), E.C.A.S. (European Commission Authentication Service). She is a referee of several journals.
In this research, two different plants combining nanofiltration and ultrafiltration are evaluated and compared, for a wastewater treatment plant at industrial scale. A design and economic analysis is developed using the experimental data of a pilot plant. In the first plant, an ultrafiltration module is followed by nanofiltration module. The retentate of the ultrafiltration is recycled to the feed, that is partially sent to the permeate of the nanofiltration module. In this way, the area of membrane is reduced. In the second scheme, all feed is sent to the nanofiltration module. The feed stream, in the two conditions, is the current at the exit of sand filters, at the downstream of settler. \r\nFrom a pilot plant data, an average feed flow rate equal to 4.46 m3/h result. In the first plant, from material balance it is found that for the ultrafiltration the value of retentate and permeate flow rate, membrane area and VCR are equal to 27 m3/h, 32 m3/h, 797 m2 and 2.2 respectively. For the nanofiltration the value of retentate and permeate flow rate, membrane area and CVR are respectively equal to 11.4 m3/h, 21 m3/h, 1711 m2 and 2.8. The COD at the exit of the system is 197 mg/l. The energetic cost is 57300 €/year. \r\nIn the second plant, for the ultrafiltration, the value of retentate and permeate flow rate and membrane area are respectively 33.5 m3/h, 40.3 m3/h and 2155 m2. For the nanofiltration, the value of retentate and permeate flow rate and membrane area are respectively 14.4 m3/h, 25.9 m3/h and 2155 m2. The COD at the exit is 95 mg/l while the energetic cost is 73200 €/year. The higher cost is due to the higher flow rate at the ultrafiltration system, however the value of COD at the exit is lower and according the legislation. \r\n\r\n
Noureddine Ouerfelli has a PhD and Habilitation in Chemistry; he is a head of research project in the Laboratory of Biophysics and Medical Technologies. Published papers are more than 55 in reputed journals on modeling of physicochemical properties in solution.
Knowledge and estimation of transport properties of fluids are necessary for mass flow and heat transfer. Viscosity is one of the main properties which are sensitive to temperature and pressure variation. In the present work, based on the use of statistical techniques for regression analysis and correlation tests, we propose an original equation modeling the relationship between the two parameters of viscosity Arrhenius-type equationrn(ln = lnAs + Ea/RT).rn Empirical validation using 76 data set of pure fluids provided from the literature and studied at different temperature ranges gives excellent statistical results which allow us to redefine the Arrhenius-type equation using a single parameter instead of two ones. rn(E_a=λ•R(-〖lnA_s)〗^(α_0 )).rn More, causal correlation between these parameters and the normal boiling temperature (Tb) of the corresponding fluids leads us to propose two predictive empirical equations one with the activation energy, rn(T_b (E_a)= -E_a/(68 - 4.05×〖Ea〗^0.34 ))rnand one with the logarithm of pre-exponential factor, rn(T_b (lnA_s)= ((-〖lnA_s)〗^2.933)/(8.2 + lnA_s )).rn We conclude that the boiling point is in causal correlation with the two Arrhenius parameters, but with other physical and chemical properties implicitly for which there are some ones are common for the two Arrhenius parameters while others are in relationship only for a single parameter (lnAs) or (Ea). To correct this observation, we will try to propose in future works, an expression both explicit, the two viscosity Arrhenius parameters Tb(Ea,lnAs) alternatively in the numerator and in the denominator.rn rn Note that this equation is tested to some heavy oils with reliable agreement for which we can conclude that it can be useful for petroleum chemistry.rn